Acne is a skin condition that causes pimples or “zits.” This includes whiteheads, blackheads, and red, inflammed patches of skin (such as cysts).
Causes, Incidence And Risk Factors
Acne occurs when tiny holes on the surface of the skin become clogged. These holes are called pores.Each pore opens to a follicle. A follicle contains a hair and an oil gland. The oil released by the gland helps remove old skin cells and keeps your skin soft. When glands produce too much oil, the pores can become blocked. Dirt, bacteria, and cells build up. The blockage is called a plug or comedone. If the top of the plug is white, it is called a whitehead.
If the top of the plug is dark, it is called a blackhead.If the plug breaks open, swelling and red bumps occur.Acne that is deep in your skin can cause hard, painful cysts. This is called cystic acne. Acne is most common in teenagers, but anyone can get acne, even babies.
Hormonal changes may cause the skin to be more oily. Acne tends to run in families. It may be triggered by:
- Hormonal changes related to puberty,
- Menstrual periods,
- Pregnancy, birth control pills
- Greasy or oily cosmetic and hair products.
- Certain drugs (such as steroids, testosterone, estrogen, and phenytoin)
- High levels of humidity and sweating.
Research does not show that chocolate, nuts, and greasy foods cause acne. However, diets high in refined sugars may be related to acne.
Acne commonly appears on the face and shoulders. It may also occur on the trunk, arms, legs, and buttocks.Findings include:
Crusting of skin bumps,Cysts,Papules (small red bumps),Pustules,Redness around the skin eruptions
Scarring of the skin,Whiteheads and Blackheads.
Treatment of Acne
The diagnosis is primarily done by an Ultrasound (USG) abdomen.
SELF-CARE:A Steps you can take to help your acne:
Clean your skin gently with a mild, nondrying soap (such as Dove, Neutrogena, Cetaphil, CeraVe, or Basics). Remove all dirt or make-up. Wash once or twice a day, including after exercising. However, avoid scrubbing or repeated skin washing.
Shampoo your hair daily, especially if it is oily. Comb or pull your hair back to keep the hair out of your face.
What Not To Do
- Try not to squeeze, scratch, pick, or rub the pimples. Although it might be tempting to do this, it can lead to skin infections and scarring.
- Avoid wearing tight headbands, baseball caps, and other hats
- Avoid touching your face with your hands or fingers.
- Avoid greasy cosmetics or creams. Take off make-up at night. Look for water-based or “noncomedogenic” formulas. Noncomedogenic products have been tested and proven not to clog pores and cause acne.